In matlab one has to place radiobuttons in a uibuttongroup to make them exclusively selectable. In the startup of the gui one can select the default selection and define a callback function
set(handles.uibuttongroupView, 'SelectedObject', handles.radiobuttonPlotROI);
set(handles.uibuttongroupView, 'SelectionChangeFcn',@uibuttongroupView_SelectionChangeFcn);
The callback function then looks like
function uibuttongroupView_SelectionChangeFcn(hObject, eventdata, handles)
% hObject    handle to the selected object in uibuttongroupView 
% eventdata  structure with the following fields (see UIBUTTONGROUP)
%	EventName: string 'SelectionChanged' (read only)
%	OldValue: handle of the previously selected object or empty if none was selected
%	NewValue: handle of the currently selected object
% handles    structure with handles and user data (see GUIDATA)
if (~strcmp(get(eventdata.NewValue,'Tag'), get(eventdata.OldValue,'Tag')))
    switch get(eventdata.NewValue,'Tag') % Get Tag of selected object.
        case 'radiobuttonPlotROI'
        case 'radiobuttonPlotCalibration'
            % Code for when there is no match.
The current selection can in any gui function be retrieved using he following code, which will get the current tag as a string.
currRadioButton = get(get(handles.uibuttongroupView, 'SelectedObject'), 'Tag');